Covalent Bond is a type of chemical bonding that atom either share or transfer electron with each other. It is the attraction that holds both atoms that share a pair of electron. Covalent only form between the atom of non metal. The share electrons are attracted to the nuclei of both atom. The cause of this bond is due to the reason that they give atoms a more stable arrangement of electrons. For instance, look at the Hydrogen. It only has one electron atom. Once it shares the electron with another hydrogen, they will have two electron atom. The shared electrons are attracted to both hydrogen nuclei. This force of attraction holds the two atoms together as a molecule of hydrogen. There are two types of covalent bond.
The first type is called polar covalent. This type of bond forms electrons are not shared equally between the two atoms. Let’s look at the example of water compound(H20). The oxygen atom attracts the shared electrons more strongly because its nucleus has more positively charged protons. As a result, the oxygen atom becomes slightly negative in charge. The hydrogen atoms attract the electrons less strongly. They become slightly positive in charge. It’s like when you are working hard in a team, you are tired, but your teammate is lazy and only produce little energy, so your partner is not really tired.
The second type of covalent bond is called non polar bond. It forms when both atom gets electrons shared equally.